By Robert W. Zeuner, Member of the New York State Bar
"GOOD MORNING! My name is Investigator Holmes. Do
you mind answering a few simple questions?" If you open your door
one day and are greeted with those words, stop and think! Whether it is
the local police or the FBI at your door, you have certain legal rights
of which you ought to be aware before you proceed any further.
In the first place, when the law enforcement authorities
come to see you, there are no "simple questions." Unless they
are investigating a traffic accident, you can be sure that they want information
about someone and that someone may be you!
Rule number one to remember when confronted by the authorities
is that there is no law requiring you to talk with the police, the FBI
or the representative of any other investigative agency. Even the simplest
questions may be loaded and the seemingly harmless bits of information
which you volunteer may later become vital links in a chain of circumstantial
evidence against you or a friend.
Do not invite the investigator into your home! Such an
invitation not only gives him the opportunity to look around for clues
to your lifestyle, friends, reading material, etc., but also tends to prolong
the conversation. And, the longer the conversation, the more chance there
is for a skilled investigator to find out what he wants to know.
Many times, a police officer will ask you to accompany
her to the police station to answer a few questions. In that case, simply
thank her for the invitation and indicate that you are not disposed to
accept it at that time. Often the authorities simply want to photograph
a person for identification purposes, a procedure which is easily accomplished
by placing him in a private room with a two-way mirror at the station,
asking a few innocent questions and then releasing him.
If the investigator becomes angry at your failure to cooperate
and threatens you with arrest, stand firm. He cannot legally place you
under arrest or enter your home without a warrant signed by a judge. If
he indicates that he has such a warrant, ask to see it. A person under
arrest or located on premises to be searched, generally must be shown a
warrant if he requests it and must be given a chance to read it.
Without a warrant, an officer depends solely upon your
helpfulness to obtain the information he wants. So, unless you are quite
sure of yourself, don't be helpful.
Probably the wisest approach to take to a persistent investigator
is simply to say: "I'm quite busy now. If you have any questions that
you feel I can answer, I'd be happy to listen to them in my lawyer's office.
Goodbye!" Talk is cheap. But when that talk involves the law enforcement
authorities, it may cost you, or someone close to you, dearly.
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